by Duyeon Kim [contact information]
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) was adopted on April 22, 1970 and is the cornerstone of disarmament treaties. It contains a basic bargain: nuclear-weapon states agree to eliminate their nuclear weapons, non-nuclear-weapon states promise not to acquire such weapons, and all parties to the Treaty are guaranteed the right to peacefully use nuclear energy.
2. Peaceful uses of nuclear energy
3. Nuclear disarmament
189 (excluding India, Israel, Pakistan; North Korea withdrew in 2003)
ENTRY INTO FORCE
1970, but since then, we’ve seen the emergence of more states possessing and trying to acquire nuclear weapons and/or capabilities
About 23,000 nuclear weapons in the world
NUCLEAR WEAPONS STATES
5 - U.S., Russia, Britain, France, China
OTHER STATES WITH NUCLEAR WEAPONS
India, Pakistan, Israel, North Korea
** Not all countries that have nukes are given the name/status “nuclear-weapons state.” This is a very special/particular “title” defined by the NPT
OTHER KEY POINTS
* Every country has the sovereign right to peaceful uses of nuclear energy, but you must abide by international safeguards (rules) stipulated in the NPT. However, a state can still go from peaceful use to weaponization if it has the technology to produce nuclear energy.
* Countries are forbidden from acquiring nuclear weapons (if they don’t have them already).
* All members are not allowed to proliferate (transfer/spread) or receive transfers of nuclear weapons parts, technology and know-how.
* Nuclear-weapons states are not allowed to use their nuclear weapons on countries without nuclear weapons.
Duyeon Kim is the Deputy Director of Nuclear Non-Proliferation at the Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation where her policy work focuses on North Korea, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear security and nuclear terrorism prevention. Kim has published in major publications including the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists and World Politics Review. Prior to joining the Center, Kim was a career Diplomatic and Security Journalist in Seoul.