Center for Arms Control



Atomic bomb explosion in the Marshall Islands. National Archives.

Since entering into force in 1970, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the NPT, has remained the cornerstone of the international nonproliferation regime. In creating a system of mutual responsibilities and an international taboo against the use or threat to use nuclear weapons, the NPT has proven largely successful in stemming proliferation.

But the nonproliferation regime faces new challenges: insufficient protections against the theft or sale of various nuclear materials in states of the former Soviet Union; nuclear black market activity such as the network operated by A.Q. Khan out of Pakistan; threats by North Korea to share nuclear technology with states or non-state actors hostile to the U.S.; and, most recently, violations of IAEA nuclear safeguard standards by Iran, a signatory of the NPT which is enriching uranium and has been accused of engaging in activities related to nuclear weapons research and design. Iran argues that it is making nuclear fuel for purely civilian purposes.

The threat of nuclear terrorism is producing additional challenges to the NPT regime, particularly in the areas of securing and safeguarding nuclear weapons material.

Many experts agree that some type of nonproliferation regime reform is necessary, particularly since certain states have interpreted the NPT as allowing them to acquire nuclear technologies that take them to the brink of acquiring an actual nuclear weapon without explicitly violating the treaty, sometimes referred to as a "breakout capability." Withdrawing from the NPT also carries no penalty, save possible ad hoc action taken by the U.N. Security Council.


Kingston Reif

Kingston Reif

Director of Nuclear Non-Proliferation
202-546-0795 ext. 2103
kreif AT armscontrolcenter DOT org


Aug 19, 2014

The Washington Post publishes Letter to the Editor on Military Escalation in Iraq by Angela Canterbury

"If a U.S. military engagement had been designed as a limited strategy to rescue Yazidis and to evacuate U.S. personnel, we would have reacted differently," writes Angela Canterbury, Executive Director of CACNP. "But the open-ended nature of the stated mission was and continues to be alarming."

Aug 15, 2014

Senate Appropriators Defy Administration on Nukes

A summary and analysis of the FY 2015 Senate Appropriations Committee Energy and Water Bill and report.

Jun 18, 2014

U.S. News & World Report Publishes Letter to the Editor on Missile Defense Failures by John Isaacs

"Today, the greatest nuclear danger isn’t from another country but rather a rogue group with a suitcase that evaded detection because we slashed nonproliferation funds to support “big ticket” projects," writes John Isaacs for U.S. News & World Report.

Jun 12, 2014

Fact Sheet: The Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program

The Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, also known as the Nunn-Lugar Program, was created to secure and dismantle weapons of mass destruction in the former Soviet Union.

May 19, 2014

Report Card: Non-Proliferation & Nuclear Terrorism Prevention Program Funding

A report card grading the White House's funding request and the House Armed Services Committee authorization for nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear terrorism prevention programs for Fiscal Year 2015.

May 19, 2014

Knoxville News Sentinel Covers the Center's Non-Proliferation Report Card

Kingston Reif, the center’s director of nuclear non-proliferation programs, said in a statement distributed this afternoon, “President Obama has often stated that a mushroom cloud over Manhattan is what keeps him up at night, but his budget request slashed hundreds of millions of dollars from critical programs that keep dangerous nuclear and radiological materials out of the hands of terrorists.”

May 5, 2014

Global Security Newswire Covers Letter to President Obama on Non-Proliferation Funding Cuts

Specifically, the experts lamented a planned reduction to the Global Threat Reduction Initiative of 25 percent, and cuts to the International Nuclear Materials Protection Program totaling 27 percent. Also affected: The Pentagon's Cooperative Threat Reduction budget, which is slated to be cut by 27 percent, according to the signers.

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