Beginning formally in 2013, nations of the P5+1 (the United States, France, the United Kingdom, China, Russia, plus Germany) and the European Union engaged in diplomatic negotiations with Iran to address the international community’s concerns over Iran’s nuclear program.

On July 14, 2015, after two years of negotiations, the P5+1 and the European Union announced the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) to prevent Iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon. Under the agreement, known as the Iran nuclear deal, Iran significantly reduced its nuclear program and accepted strict monitoring and verification safeguards to ensure its program is solely for peaceful purposes. In exchange, Iran received economic sanctions relief from nuclear-related sanctions (all other sanctions remained in place), but only after the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) verified that Iran had completed its initial requirements under the agreement.

Since the signing of the agreement, the IAEA has routinely verified that Iran is in full compliance under the JCPOA. Nonetheless, in May 2018, President Trump pulled the United States out of the JCPOA without cause and re-imposed nuclear-related sanctions on Iran. After President Trump’s decision, the other parties to the agreement have remained committed to its implementation.

The Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation works within a broad coalition of organizations to support this diplomatic non-proliferation effort. Our experts recommend that the United States returns to compliance with the JCPOA as it is the only responsible pathway to verifiably constrain Iran’s nuclear program.




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