Since North Korea carried out its first nuclear weapon test in 2003, it has been the target of multiple sanctions regimes in an attempt to discourage its nuclear development. The UN and the United States, as well as the European Union, Japan, South Korea, and Australia, have sanctioned North Korea over the past 16 years.
- Resolution 1718: Passed on October 14, 2006 after North Korea’s first nuclear test. Imposed sanctions on heavy weaponry supplies, missile technology and material, and luxury goods.
- Resolution 1874: Passed on June 12, 2009 after North Korea’s second nuclear test. Strengthened sanctions on North Korea.
- Resolution 2087: Passed on January 22, 2013 after North Korea’s satellite launch. Condemned the launch and North Korea’s nuclear program activities.
- Resolution 2094: Passed on March 7, 2013 after North Korea’s third nuclear test. Imposed harsher sanctions, expanding the list of sanctioned industries and individuals.
- Resolution 2270: Passed on March 2, 2016 after North Korea’s fourth nuclear test. Imposed broader sanctions, including the banning of states from supplying North Korea with aviation fuel.
- Resolution 2321: Passed on November 30, 2016 after North Korea’s fifth nuclear test. Expanded sanctions, including a ban on mineral exports and the sale of helicopters.
- Resolution 2371: Passed on August 5, 2017 after North Korea’s two ICBM tests. Expanded sanctions, including a ban on coal and iron exports.
- Resolution 2375: Passed on September 11, 2017 after North Korea’s sixth nuclear test. Expanded sanctions, including a ban on natural gas imports and textile exports, and a limited ban on refined petroleum and crude oil imports and labor exports.
- Resolution 2397: Passed on December 22, 2017. Expanded sanctions, including restrictions on oil imports and metal, agricultural, and labor exports.
The United States levies sanctions against North Korean entities and sectors through executive action and legislation, which are enforced by the State and Treasury Departments.
- E.O. 13466: Issued June 26, 2008 under the authority of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA) and the National Emergencies Act (NEA). Declared a national emergency in response to the threat posed by fissile material proliferation in North Korea. Continued the sanctions measures imposed under the Trading With the Enemy Act (TWEA). Issued in concurrence with Proclamation 8271, which terminated TWEA’s authority with regard to North Korea.
- E.O. 13551: Issued August 30, 2010 pursuant to the IEEPA, the NEA, and the United Nations Participation Act (UNPA). Blocked the property and interests in property of designated North Korean individuals, restricting their ability to be transferred, paid, exported, withdrawn, or otherwise dealt in.
- E.O. 13570: Issued April 18, 2011 pursuant to the IEEPA, the NEA, and the UNPA. Ensured the implementation of the import restrictions imposed by UNSCR 1718 and UNSCR 1874, and complemented the import restrictions imposed by the Arms Export Control Act.
- E.O. 13687: Issued January 2, 2015 pursuant to the IEEPA and the NEA. Blocked the property and interests in property of designated North Korean individuals, restricting their ability to be transferred, paid, exported, withdrawn, or otherwise dealt in.
- E.O. 13722: Issued March 15, 2016 pursuant to the IEEPA, the NEA, the UNPA, and the North Korea Sanctions and Policy Enhancement Act (NKSPEA). Ensured implementation of UNSCR 2270 and the NKSPEA. Fully blocked engagement with the North Korean economy, the North Korean government, and the North Korean Worker’s Party.
- Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act Sanctions (INKSNA): Passed in 2000. Authorizes the United States to impose sanctions against North Korean individuals and entities that engage in proliferation activities or for the transfer of equipment or technology with the potential to make a material contribution to WMD or missile system development.
- North Korea Sanctions and Policy Enhancement Act of 2016 (NKSPEA): Passed in 2016. Requires the President to sanction entities that have contributed to North Korea’s nuclear program, arms trade, human rights abuses, or illicit activities including mineral or metal trade. Blocks any property belonging to the North Korean government or Worker’s Party if under U.S. jurisdiction.
- Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act: Passed in 2017. Imposes sanctions on North Korean cargo and shipping, goods produced in North Korea or by North Korean forced labor, and foreign persons that employ North Korean forced laborers. Restricts U.S. financial institutions from providing indirect financial services to North Korea, and prohibits foreign governments that provides to or receives from North Korea defense articles or services from receiving certain types of U.S. foreign assistance.