Emeritus Members of the Scientists Working Group
Barbara Hatch Rosenberg (PhD) is a co-founder of the Scientists Working Group on Biological and Chemical Weapons. Co-founder of the Scientists Working Group on Biological and Chemical Weapons and chair of the Working Group from 1991 to 2005, during which time the Group produced many technical reports for the international negotiations on verification of the BWC. Rosenberg was a member of the National Academy of Sciences Biological Weapons Working Group in 2002-2003; member of a panel of scientists that met with President Clinton and Cabinet members to advise on biological weapons issues in 1998, and a member of the Advisory Panel for the Office of Technology Assessment’s study of Weapons of Mass Destruction in 1993-4. After retiring from molecular biological research at Sloan-Kettering Institute, she moved to the State University of New York at Purchase. In addition to many scientific publications she has published 45 articles on arms control and related subjects and contributed to more than 50 reports and working papers issued by the Working Group. Dr. Rosenberg was an officer of ProMED-mail, the global electronic rapid reporting system for outbreaks of emerging diseases, which was launched by the Working Group in 1994 as a prototype and later became an independent entity.
David P. Fidler (JD) is the James Calamaras Professor of Law at Indiana University School of Law, Bloomington and is the Director of the Indiana University Center on American and Global Security. He is one of the world’s leading experts on international law and public health, with an emphasis on infectious diseases. His publications include International Law and Infectious Diseases (Clarendon Press, 1999), SARS, Governance, and the Globalization of Disease (Palgrave, 2004), and Biosecurity in the Global Age: Biological Weapons, Public Health, and the Rule of Law (forthcoming from Stanford University Press, 2008)(with Lawrence O. Gostin). He has served as an international legal consultant to the World Health Organization, World Bank, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Defense’s Defense Science Board Task Force on Defense Against Biological Weapons, and various non-governmental organizations.
Jens H. Kuhn, MD, PhD, PhD, MS is currently Principal and Tunnell Government Services IRF-Frederick Team Lead, Tunnell Government Services, Inc., Bethesda, Maryland, USA; and Virology Lead, NIH/NIAID/DCR Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick (IRF-Frederick), National Interagency Biodefense Campus (NIBC), Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, USA.
Previously he has served as Managing Consultant, Tunnell Government Services; Lead Virologist, NIH/NIAID/DCR Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick (IRF-Frederick); Subcontractor. Battelle Memorial Institute; Research Scholar. Division of Tumor Virology, New England Primate Research Center, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School; Research Fellow. Partners AIDS Research Center, Channing Laboratory, Brigham & Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School;Technical Diplomat (US Department of State sponsorship) and Senior Project Manager for the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC), Moscow, Russia, representing the US Department of Defense’s Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA); Subcontractor. Science Applications International Corporation—Threat Reduction Support Center (SAIC-TRSC).
Milton Leitenberg is Senior Research Scholar at the Center for International and Security Studies at the University of Maryland, where he has been working on issues related to biological weapons and arms control since 1989. He was trained as a biochemist and moved into the field of arms control in 1966. In 1968, Leitenberg was the first American recruited to work at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), where he was a member of the team that produced the landmark six-volume study, The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare, between 1971 and 1973. He was subsequently affiliated with the Swedish Institute of International Affairs and the Center for International Studies Peace Program at Cornell University. Widely published, Mr. Leitenberg has authored or edited a dozen books or book length studies, and published 180 journal papers, monographs, and book chapters. Among these are major portions of Tactical Nuclear Weapons, European Perspectives, SIPRI (Taylor and Francis, 1978); Great Power Intervention in the Middle East (edited, Pergamon Press, 1979); The Structure of Defense Industry: An International Survey (edited, Croom Helm, 1983); and The Wars in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos, 1945 – 1982: A Bibliographic Guide (ABC-Clio, 1984). CISSM published his major monograph Biological Weapons Arms Control in 1986. A more recent work is Assessing the Biological and Bioterrorism Threat, published in 2005 by the US Army War College.
Ambassador James Leonard
Ambassador James Leonard is a co-founder of the Scientists Working Group on Biological and Chemical Weapons in 1989 and has served with th¬e Group ever since. Ambassador Leonard was the chief U.S. negotiator for the Biological Weapons Convention under President Richard Nixon as Assistant Director of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) from 1969 to 1973. After a brief retirement from government service from 1973 to 1977, during which he served as President of the United Nations Association (UNA), Ambassador Leonard returned to serve as Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations. From 1979 to 1981, he was Deputy Special Representative to the Middle East peace negotiations. Prior to joining ACDA, Ambassador Leonard spent twenty years as a Foreign Service Officer in Damascas, Moscow, Paris, Taipei and Washington, DC. Since retiring in 1981, he has been involved as a consultant or board member with a number of non-governmental organizations, including the Aspen Institute, the Palme Commission, the Committee on National Security, the Washington Council on Non-Proliferation, the British American Security Information Council, the Canberra Commission, and others.
Jack Melling (Ph D) was a Senior Science Fellow with the Center and is also currently a Project Manager at Battelle Memorial Institute in Ohio, a consultant to the US General Accounting Office, and Senior Scientific Advisor to the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative in New York. Melling currently serves as Chair of the Society of Chemical Industry’s Board of Trustees. Previously, Dr. Melling served the UK Ministry of Defence as the Chief Executive and Principal Scientific Officer of the Microbiological Research Authority, Porton Down. He has also served as Deputy Director, Director of Vaccine Research and Production, and Head of the Division of Biologics at the Center for Applied Microbiology and Research (CAMR) at Porton Down. After his retirement at Porton Down, he directed the Salk Institute Biologicals Development Center in Pennsylvania and the Karl Landsteiner Institute for Vaccine Development in Vienna, Austria.
Alan Pearson is a Branch Chief in the Biotechnology Regulatory Service/Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service at the United States Department of Agriculture, where he works on issues related to the regulation of environmental releases of genetically engineered organisms. From 2004 – 2008, he was Director of the Biological and Chemical Weapons Control Program at the Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation. Previously, he was worked on biodefense issues at the US Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate as a Global Security Science and Technology Policy Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Nuclear Threat Initiative. He received a Ph.D. in biology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and was a Research Fellow at the Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard University School of Medicine.
Kathleen Vogel (PhD) is an associate professor at North Carolina State University in the Department of Political Science. She also serves as Director of the Science, Technology, and Society Program. Her research focuses on studying the social and technical dimensions of bioweapons threats and the production of knowledge in intelligence assessments on WMD issues.
Prior to joining the NC State faculty, Dr. Vogel was an associate professor at Cornell University with a joint appointment in the Department of Science and Technology Studies and in the Judith Reppy Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies. Previously, she has been appointed as a William C. Foster Fellow in the U.S. Department of State’s Office of Proliferation Threat Reduction in the Bureau of Nonproliferation. Vogel has also spent time as a visiting scholar at the Cooperative Monitoring Center, Sandia National Laboratories and the Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies.
Dr. Vogel holds a Ph.D. in biological chemistry from Princeton University.
Mark Wheelis (PhD) had been a member of the Working Group since the early 1990s, and served as its Chair. He received his doctorate in bacteriology from the University of California Berkeley in 1969, and did post-doctoral work in biochemistry at the University of Illinois. He was on the faculty of the Microbiology Department at the University of California (Davis) from 1970 to 2008. For the last 20 years, his research has been focused on the history and control of chemical and biological weapons. Dr. Wheelis has consulted or served with a number of U.S. and international organizations, including the Government Accountability Office, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the World Health Organization, Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, and the Program on Monitoring Emerging Diseases (ProMED). He is co-editor of Deadly Cultures: Biological Weapons Since 1945 (Harvard University Press, 2006) and Incapacitating Biochemical Weapons: Promise or Peril (Roman and Littlefield, 2007).