by Christopher Hellman and Travis Sharp
The Senate Armed Services Committee released its markup of S. 3001, the Fiscal Year (FY) 2009 Defense Authorization bill, on May 1, 2008. S. 3001, as reported to the full Senate by the Armed Services Committee, fully funds the administration’s $612.5 billion FY2009 National Defense request.
S. 3001 provides $542.5 billion for National Defense (function 050), plus $70 billion in “bridge” funding for ongoing military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, for a total of $612.5 billion. Of the $70 billion in war funding, $19.9 billion is for Afghanistan, $49.6 billion is for Iraq, and $500 million is for war-related military construction. $70 billion will not be enough to fund ongoing military operations throughout all of FY2009, but it will, as the Committee’s press release notes, “provide sufficient funding to allow the next administration to take office without facing an immediate financial crisis in the DOD budget.”
The full Senate may take up consideration of S. 3001 as early as the week of June 16.
This analysis divides base budget and war-related authorizations. For war-related spending and authorization, see “Ongoing Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan” below.
Increase in Military Basic Pay – Authorizes a 3.9% across-the-board pay raise for military personnel, 0.5% higher than the administration’s request.
Personnel End Strengths – The bill includes the Defense Department’s requested active duty personnel increases of 7,000 for the Army (to 532,400) and 5,000 for the Marine Corps (to 194,000). The bill also approves the Defense Department’s request for reductions for the Navy and the Air Force. The Navy would decrease by 3,798 to 326,323, while the Air Force would decrease by 12,792 (rather than by the 12,963 requested) to 316,771.
Missile Defense – Cuts $270 million from the administration’s request for the Missile Defense Agency. Includes an additional $270 million for near-term missile defense capabilities, including Aegis BMD, THAAD, Short-Range BMD, and the Arrow missile program. Places restrictions on the continued development of a third missile defense site based in Europe (see “Key Policy Provisions” below). Eliminates the $10 million request for the Space Test Bed.
Aircraft – Fully funds the requests for the F-22 “Raptor” fighter, F/A-18E/F “Super Hornet” and E/A-18G radar jamming aircraft, V-22 “Osprey,” and C-130J transport. Includes no funding for additional C-17 transport aircraft. Leaves the decision about whether to continue or shut down the F-22 production line to the next administration. Note that the version of the FY2008/FY2009 war supplemental bill that passed the Senate May 22 included additional funding for F/A-18E/Fs ($768 million), V-22s ($690 million), C-130Js ($1.8 billion), and C-17s ($3.6 billion).
Shipbuilding – Fully funds the requests for one DDG-1000 “Zumwalt” destroyer (DDx), one “Virginia” submarine, and two Littoral Combat Ships (LCS). Provides advanced procurement funding for a tenth, unrequested LPD-17 “San Antonio” amphibious assault ship in FY2010.
Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW) – Retains the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration RRW request of $10 million, but eliminates the Navy’s RRW request of $23.3 million slated for “Phase 3” engineering development activities.
Nonproliferation Programs – Adds $20 million to the administration’s $414.1 million request for DOD’s Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) (“Nunn-Lugar”) program for states of the former Soviet Union. Provides $1.8 billion for the Department of Energy’s nonproliferation programs, $552 million above the request.
[NOTE: This funding is for the annual baseline budget only. See “Ongoing Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan” below for details on the additional $70 billion requested for current military operations]
Total Funding (Budget Function 050)
Administration request: $542.5 billion
Committee: $542.5 billion
Administration request: $102.7 billion
Committee: $103.9 billion
Research, Development, Testing & Evaluation (RDT&E)
Administration request: $79.6 billion
Committee: $79.7 billion
Operations & Maintenance
Administration request: $154.8 billion
Committee: $154.0 billion
Administration request: N/A
Committee: $114.9 billion
NOTE: The Committee report accompanying S. 3001 does not show the administration’s “Budget Authority” request for Personnel. It lists under “Budget Authority Implications” a request of $129.1 billion and a Committee figure of $128.4 billion ($744 million below the request). The Defense Department’s February 2008 request figure for “Personnel” was $125.2 billion. In its version of the FY2009 Defense Authorization bill passed on May 22, the House included $124.7 billion and used the February 2008 figure as the administration base-line.
Other DOD Authorizations
Administration request: $28.6 billion
Committee: $28.4 billion
NOTE: Total amount includes $23.6 billion for the Defense Health program, $1.187 billion above the request, included in Title XIV of this legislation
[NOTE: The Committee provides a combined $24.8 billion for Military Construction, Housing, and BRAC, $405 million above the request]
Administration request: $11.7 billion
Committee: $12.1 billion
Administration request: $3.2 billion
Committee: $3.2 billion
Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC)
Administration request: $9.5 billion
Committee: $9.5 billion
Atomic Energy Defense Activities in the Department of Energy (Budget Function 053)
Administration request: $15.9 billion
Committee: $15.9 billion
MAJOR WEAPONS SYSTEMS
BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE (Missile Defense Agency only)
Administration request: $9.3 billion
Committee: $9.0 billion, $269 million below request
F/A-22 “Raptor” Fighter
Administration request: $3.1 billion for 20 aircraft
Committee: $3.1 billion for 20 aircraft
NOTE: The Committee provides in the base budget an additional $497.0 million for either advanced procurement of additional aircraft in FY2010 OR for winding down the F-22 production line, leaving the decision on continued F-22 production to the next administration. In its version of the FY2009 Defense Authorization bill passed on May 22, the House included an additional $523 million in advanced procurement for 20 F-22 fighter aircraft as part of the $70 billion supplemental war funding authorization.
Joint Strike Fighter
Administration request: $3.3 billion for eight Navy and eight Air Force aircraft and $137 million for the alternative engine program
Committee: $3.3 billion for eight Navy and eight Air Force aircraft and $430 million for the alternative engine program
F/A-18E/F “Super Hornet” Fighter
Administration request: $1.9 billion for 23 aircraft
Committee: $1.9 billion for 23 aircraft
EA-18G Radar Jamming Aircraft
Administration request: $1.6 billion for 22 aircraft
Committee: $1.6 billion for 22 aircraft
V-22 “Osprey” Tilt-rotor
Administration request: $2.54 billion for 30 Navy and six Air Force aircraft
Committee: $2.54 billion for 30 Navy and six Air Force aircraft
C-130J Transport Aircraft
Administration request: $119.5 million for two Marine Corps KC-130J aircraft, and $507.7 million for six HC/MC-130J Air Force aircraft
Committee: $119.5 million for two Marine Corps KC-130J aircraft, and $507.7 million for six HC/MC-130J Air Force aircraft
C-17 Globemaster Transport Aircraft
Administration request: $267.6 million
Committee: $318.8 million
NOTE: In its version of the FY2009 Defense Authorization bill passed on May 22, the House included $3.9 billion for 15 C-17s as part of the $70 billion supplemental war funding authorization. In its version of the FY2008/FY2009 war supplemental bill that passed May 22, the Senate included $3.6 billion for 15 C-17s.
DDG-1000 “Zumwalt” Destroyer [DD(x)]
Administration request: $2.5 billion for one vessel
Committee: $2.5 billion for one vessel
Carrier Replacement Program (CVN-21)
Administration request: $2.7 billion
Committee: $2.7 billion
LPD-17 “San Antonio” Amphibious Assault Ship
Administration request: $103 million (to cover costs of closing production line)
Committee: $323 million for Advanced Procurement of a tenth ship in FY2010
NOTE: In its version of the FY2009 Defense Authorization bill passed on May 22, the House included $1.8 billion for a tenth ship.
LHA Replacement Vessel (LHA-R)
Administration request: $348 million in the National Defense Sealift Fund
Committee: $178 million, and transfers funding to general Navy shipbuilding accounts
SSN-774 “Virginia” Class Submarine
Administration request: $2.1 billion for one vessel
Committee: $2.1 billion for one vessel, plus $1.395 billion for advanced procurement of an additional submarine, $79 million above the request
Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)
Administration request: $920 million for two ships
Committee $797 million for two ships
NOTE: In its version of the FY2009 Defense Authorization bill passed on May 22, the House included $840.0 million for one ship.
Stryker Interim Armored Vehicle (IAV)
Administration request: $1.2 billion for 119 vehicles
Committee: $1.2 billion for 119 vehicles
Future Combat System
Administration request: $3.6 billion
Committee: $3.6 billion
NOTE: In its version of the FY2009 Defense Authorization bill passed on May 22, the House funded FCS at $200 million below request
Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter
Administration request: $358.8 million for 28 aircraft
Committee $283.8 million for 20 aircraft
NOTE: In its version of the FY2009 Defense Authorization bill passed on May 22, the House included $229.0 million for 15 aircraft.
UH-60 Blackhawk Helicopters
Administration request: $925.9 million for 63 aircraft
Committee $925.9 billion for 63 aircraft
HMMWV High Mobility Vehicle
Administration request: $946.7 million
Committee: $946.7 million
Department of Energy Nonproliferation Programs
Administration request: $1.247 billion
Committee: $1.799 billion ($552 million above request)
DOD Cooperative Threat Reduction Program (“Nunn-Lugar”)
Administration request: $414.1 million
Committee: $434.1 million
DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR WEAPONS-RELATED ACTIVITIES
National Nuclear Security Administration
Administration request: $9.1 billion
Committee: $9.6 billion, which includes $6.61 billion for “Weapons Activities,” $7.4 million below the “Weapons Activities” request
NOTE: $552 million increase in DOE nonproliferation program funding, above, explains growth from $9.1 billion NNSA request to $9.6 billion Committee recommendation)
Defense Environmental Clean-up
Administration request: $5.3 billion
Committee: $5.3 billion
KEY POLICY PROVISIONS
Restriction on Funds for European Missile Defense – Restricts funding for the third missile defense site in Europe until the Polish and Czech governments give final approval. The bill also restricts funding from being obligated until the system has demonstrated through “successful, operationally realistic flight testing, that it has a high probability of accomplishing its mission in an operationally effective manner.”
Review of U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense – Requires the Secretary of Defense to conduct a review of the ballistic missile defense policy and strategy of the United States. The review must be submitted to Congress no later than January 31, 2010. The bill also requires an independent assessment of the costs and benefits of boost phase missile defense. The study would be responsible for examining the Airborne Laser and the Kinetic Energy Interceptor programs, among others.
Strategy to Prevent Suicides – Noting that active-duty Army suicide rates have doubled from 9.8 per 100,000 in 2001 to 19.7 per 100,000 in 2007, the bill requires the Secretary of Defense to develop a comprehensive strategy for preventing suicide by members of the U.S. armed forces.
Contracting Reforms – The bill requires that contracts performing “inherently governmental functions” fully disclose potential conflicts of interest for contractor employees. Also mandates that contractors be held to the same ethical standards as federal employees.
Separate Iraq and Afghanistan Funding in Budget Request – Noting Secretary of Defense Robert Gates’s observation that many of America’s European allies “have a problem with our involvement in Iraq and project that to Afghanistan, and do not understand…the very different kind of threat,” the bill requires the Secretary of Defense to clearly separate funding for Iraq from funding for Afghanistan in any subsequent supplemental or “base” budget request.
Prohibition on Funding Infrastructure Projects in Iraq – Prohibits funding from being used for large-scale infrastructure projects in Iraq, and requires that the United States work to ensure that Iraqi funds are used to pay for Iraqi Security Forces and sahwa forces (aka “Sons of Iraq”).
ONGOING OPERATIONS IN IRAQ AND AFGHANISTAN
Section 1008 of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY2007 required DOD to include in its annual budget request for future fiscal years detailed information on military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan previously funded through emergency supplemental appropriations.
Section 1516 of the Committee’s version of the FY2009 National Defense Authorization bill (S. 3001) requires the Secretary of Defense to separately identify funding requests for operations in Afghanistan “in any future annual or supplemental budget request.” As a result, funding for ongoing operations in Afghanistan are included in Title XV of the Senate bill and funding for operations in Iraq are included in Title XVI.
Total funding for ongoing military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan included in the Committee’s bill is $69.5 billion. There is also an additional $500 million included for Military Construction in the Afghan and Iraq theatres of operation (Title XXIX).
ONGOING OPERATIONS IN AFGHANISTAN (TITLE XV)
Total Funding – Provides $19.9 billion for military operations in Afghanistan.
Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Fund – Authorizes $496 million for the FY2009 JIEDDO Fund.
Afghanistan Security Forces Fund – Provides $3.0 billion for war-related spending on security forces in Afghanistan in the “Other Funding” account.
Mine Resistant Ambush Protected Vehicles (MRAP) – Provides $100 million for the MRAP program.
Total Funding: $19.9 billion
Personnel: $750 million
Operations & Maintenance: $11.8 billion
Procurement: $3.7 billion
Research, Development, Testing & Evaluation (RDT&E): $60 million
Other: $3.3 billion
ONGOING OPERATIONS IN IRAQ (TITLE XVI)
Total Funding – Provides $49.6 billion for military operations in Afghanistan.
Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Fund – Authorizes $2.25 million for the FY2009 JIEDDO Fund.
Iraq Security Forces Fund – Provides only $200 million for security forces in Iraq. States that funding has been “dramatically reduced” from FY2008 levels “in light of the ability of the Iraqi government to finance its own security forces given the significant increases in Iraqi oil revenues and the large balances of unspent Iraqi funds.” (Sec. 1613)
Mine Resistant Ambush Protected Vehicles (MRAP) – Provides $500 million for the MRAP program.
Total Funding: $49.625 billion
Personnel: $2.25 billion
Operations & Maintenance: $37.2 billion
Procurement: $10.5 billion
Research, Development, Testing & Evaluation (RDT&E): $140 million
Other: $810 million
Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, The FY 2009 Pentagon (DOD) Defense Budget Spending Request (released February 4, 2008).
Senate Armed Services Committee, Press Release on FY 2009 Defense Authorization (released May 1, 2008).
Senate Armed Services Committee, Committee Report 110-335 (printed May 12, 2008).