Despite extreme international pressure and sanctions, North Korea has pursued a nuclear weapons program for decades in a self-described attempt to protect the regime from security threats posed by adversarial countries. In 2003, North Korea withdrew from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and then tested its first nuclear weapon on October 9, 2006. It continues to build its stockpile of nuclear weapons, test short- and medium-range ballistic missiles, and produce fissile material. North Korea has not conducted a nuclear or long-range missile test since 2017.
It is estimated that North Korea has enough fissile material to build 30 to 60 nuclear warheads, with 20-30 possibly assembled warheads.
There is no public evidence that North Korea has air-based capabilities.
The Pukkuksong-1 is North Korea’s only submarine-launched ballistic missile.
North Korea has a number of close- and short-range Scud-type ballistic missiles and two types of medium-range ballistic missiles, the Hwasong-7 and -9. The Pukkuksong-2 is a solid fuel medium-range missile also under development. The Hwasong-7, or Nodong, is thought to be nuclear capable. North Korea has two intermediate-range ballistic missiles, the Hwasong-10 and -12. Finally, North Korea has four potential ballistic missiles thought to have intercontinental range: the Taepodong-2, the Hwasong-13, Hwasong-14 and Hwasong-15. The Hwasong-14 and -15 were both tested in 2017, with the Hwasong-15 demonstrating a range estimated to be capable of hitting the United States. The Hwasong-13 has never been tested, so the range is highly speculative. Finally, the Taepodong-2 has yet to have a successful test.